Nuevo en la versión 1.0.

Originally, Sphinx was conceived for a single project, the documentation of the Python language. Shortly afterwards, it was made available for everyone as a documentation tool, but the documentation of Python modules remained deeply built in – the most fundamental directives, like function, were designed for Python objects. Since Sphinx has become somewhat popular, interest developed in using it for many different purposes: C/C++ projects, JavaScript, or even reStructuredText markup (like in this documentation).

While this was always possible, it is now much easier to easily support documentation of projects using different programming languages or even ones not supported by the main Sphinx distribution, by providing a domain for every such purpose.

A domain is a collection of markup (reStructuredText directives and roles) to describe and link to objects belonging together, e.g. elements of a programming language. Directive and role names in a domain have names like domain:name, e.g. py:function. Domains can also provide custom indices (like the Python Module Index).

Having domains means that there are no naming problems when one set of documentation wants to refer to e.g. C++ and Python classes. It also means that extensions that support the documentation of whole new languages are much easier to write.

This section describes what the domains that are included with Sphinx provide. The domain API is documented as well, in the section Domain API.

Basic Markup

Most domains provide a number of object description directives, used to describe specific objects provided by modules. Each directive requires one or more signatures to provide basic information about what is being described, and the content should be the description. The basic version makes entries in the general index; if no index entry is desired, you can give the directive option flag :noindex:. An example using a Python domain directive:

.. py:function:: spam(eggs)

   Spam or ham the foo.

This describes the two Python functions spam and ham. (Note that when signatures become too long, you can break them if you add a backslash to lines that are continued in the next line. Example:

.. py:function:: filterwarnings(action, message='', category=Warning, \
                                module='', lineno=0, append=False)

(This example also shows how to use the :noindex: flag.)

The domains also provide roles that link back to these object descriptions. For example, to link to one of the functions described in the example above, you could say

The function :py:func:`spam` does a similar thing.

As you can see, both directive and role names contain the domain name and the directive name.

Default Domain

For documentation describing objects from solely one domain, authors will not have to state again its name at each directive, role, etc… after having specified a default. This can be done either via the config value primary_domain or via this directive:

.. default-domain:: name

Select a new default domain. While the primary_domain selects a global default, this only has an effect within the same file.

If no other default is selected, the Python domain (named py) is the default one, mostly for compatibility with documentation written for older versions of Sphinx.

Directives and roles that belong to the default domain can be mentioned without giving the domain name, i.e.

.. function:: pyfunc()

   Describes a Python function.

Reference to :func:`pyfunc`.

Cross-referencing syntax

For cross-reference roles provided by domains, the same facilities exist as for general cross-references. See Cross-referencing syntax.

In short:

  • You may supply an explicit title and reference target: :role:`title <target>` will refer to target, but the link text will be title.
  • If you prefix the content with !, no reference/hyperlink will be created.
  • If you prefix the content with ~, the link text will only be the last component of the target. For example, :py:meth:`~Queue.Queue.get` will refer to Queue.Queue.get but only display get as the link text.

The Python Domain

The Python domain (name py) provides the following directives for module declarations:

.. py:module:: name

This directive marks the beginning of the description of a module (or package submodule, in which case the name should be fully qualified, including the package name). It does not create content (like e.g. py:class does).

This directive will also cause an entry in the global module index.

The platform option, if present, is a comma-separated list of the platforms on which the module is available (if it is available on all platforms, the option should be omitted). The keys are short identifiers; examples that are in use include «IRIX», «Mac», «Windows», and «Unix». It is important to use a key which has already been used when applicable.

The synopsis option should consist of one sentence describing the module’s purpose – it is currently only used in the Global Module Index.

The deprecated option can be given (with no value) to mark a module as deprecated; it will be designated as such in various locations then.

.. py:currentmodule:: name

This directive tells Sphinx that the classes, functions etc. documented from here are in the given module (like py:module), but it will not create index entries, an entry in the Global Module Index, or a link target for py:mod. This is helpful in situations where documentation for things in a module is spread over multiple files or sections – one location has the py:module directive, the others only py:currentmodule.

The following directives are provided for module and class contents:

.. py:function:: name(parameters)

Describes a module-level function. The signature should include the parameters as given in the Python function definition, see Python Signatures. For example:

.. py:function:: Timer.repeat(repeat=3, number=1000000)

For methods you should use py:method.

The description normally includes information about the parameters required and how they are used (especially whether mutable objects passed as parameters are modified), side effects, and possible exceptions.

This information can (in any py directive) optionally be given in a structured form, see Info field lists.

.. py:data:: name

Describes global data in a module, including both variables and values used as «defined constants.» Class and object attributes are not documented using this environment.

.. py:exception:: name

Describes an exception class. The signature can, but need not include parentheses with constructor arguments.

.. py:class:: name
.. py:class:: name(parameters)

Describes a class. The signature can optionally include parentheses with parameters which will be shown as the constructor arguments. See also Python Signatures.

Methods and attributes belonging to the class should be placed in this directive’s body. If they are placed outside, the supplied name should contain the class name so that cross-references still work. Example:

.. py:class:: Foo

   .. py:method:: quux()

-- or --

.. py:class:: Bar

.. py:method:: Bar.quux()

The first way is the preferred one.

.. py:attribute:: name

Describes an object data attribute. The description should include information about the type of the data to be expected and whether it may be changed directly.

.. py:method:: name(parameters)

Describes an object method. The parameters should not include the self parameter. The description should include similar information to that described for function. See also Python Signatures and Info field lists.

.. py:staticmethod:: name(parameters)

Like py:method, but indicates that the method is a static method.

Nuevo en la versión 0.4.

.. py:classmethod:: name(parameters)

Like py:method, but indicates that the method is a class method.

Nuevo en la versión 0.6.

.. py:decorator:: name
.. py:decorator:: name(parameters)

Describes a decorator function. The signature should represent the usage as a decorator. For example, given the functions

def removename(func):
    func.__name__ = ''
    return func

def setnewname(name):
    def decorator(func):
        func.__name__ = name
        return func
    return decorator

the descriptions should look like this:

.. py:decorator:: removename

   Remove name of the decorated function.

.. py:decorator:: setnewname(name)

   Set name of the decorated function to *name*.

(as opposed to .. py:decorator:: removename(func).)

There is no py:deco role to link to a decorator that is marked up with this directive; rather, use the py:func role.

.. py:decoratormethod:: name
.. py:decoratormethod:: name(signature)

Same as py:decorator, but for decorators that are methods.

Refer to a decorator method using the py:meth role.

Python Signatures

Signatures of functions, methods and class constructors can be given like they would be written in Python.

Default values for optional arguments can be given (but if they contain commas, they will confuse the signature parser). Python 3-style argument annotations can also be given as well as return type annotations:

.. py:function:: compile(source : string, filename, symbol='file') -> ast object

For functions with optional parameters that don’t have default values (typically functions implemented in C extension modules without keyword argument support), you can use brackets to specify the optional parts:

compile(source[, filename[, symbol]])

It is customary to put the opening bracket before the comma.

Info field lists

Nuevo en la versión 0.4.

Inside Python object description directives, reST field lists with these fields are recognized and formatted nicely:

  • param, parameter, arg, argument, key, keyword: Description of a parameter.
  • type: Type of a parameter. Creates a link if possible.
  • raises, raise, except, exception: That (and when) a specific exception is raised.
  • var, ivar, cvar: Description of a variable.
  • vartype: Type of a variable. Creates a link if possible.
  • returns, return: Description of the return value.
  • rtype: Return type. Creates a link if possible.


In current release, all var, ivar and cvar are represented as «Variable». There is no difference at all.

The field names must consist of one of these keywords and an argument (except for returns and rtype, which do not need an argument). This is best explained by an example:

.. py:function:: send_message(sender, recipient, message_body, [priority=1])

   Send a message to a recipient

   :param str sender: The person sending the message
   :param str recipient: The recipient of the message
   :param str message_body: The body of the message
   :param priority: The priority of the message, can be a number 1-5
   :type priority: integer or None
   :return: the message id
   :rtype: int
   :raises ValueError: if the message_body exceeds 160 characters
   :raises TypeError: if the message_body is not a basestring

This will render like this:

send_message(sender, recipient, message_body[, priority=1])

Send a message to a recipient

  • sender (str) – The person sending the message
  • recipient (str) – The recipient of the message
  • message_body (str) – The body of the message
  • priority (integer or None) – The priority of the message, can be a number 1-5

the message id

Tipo del valor devuelto:


  • ValueError – if the message_body exceeds 160 characters
  • TypeError – if the message_body is not a basestring

It is also possible to combine parameter type and description, if the type is a single word, like this:

:param int priority: The priority of the message, can be a number 1-5

Nuevo en la versión 1.5.

Container types such as lists and dictionaries can be linked automatically using the following syntax:

:type priorities: list(int)
:type priorities: list[int]
:type mapping: dict(str, int)
:type mapping: dict[str, int]
:type point: tuple(float, float)
:type point: tuple[float, float]

Multiple types in a type field will be linked automatically if separated by the word «or»:

:type an_arg: int or None
:vartype a_var: str or int
:rtype: float or str

Cross-referencing Python objects

The following roles refer to objects in modules and are possibly hyperlinked if a matching identifier is found:


Reference a module; a dotted name may be used. This should also be used for package names.


Reference a Python function; dotted names may be used. The role text needs not include trailing parentheses to enhance readability; they will be added automatically by Sphinx if the add_function_parentheses config value is True (the default).


Reference a module-level variable.


Reference a «defined» constant. This may be a Python variable that is not intended to be changed.


Reference a class; a dotted name may be used.


Reference a method of an object. The role text can include the type name and the method name; if it occurs within the description of a type, the type name can be omitted. A dotted name may be used.


Reference a data attribute of an object.


Reference an exception. A dotted name may be used.


Reference an object of unspecified type. Useful e.g. as the default_role.

Nuevo en la versión 0.4.

The name enclosed in this markup can include a module name and/or a class name. For example, :py:func:`filter` could refer to a function named filter in the current module, or the built-in function of that name. In contrast, :py:func:`foo.filter` clearly refers to the filter function in the foo module.

Normally, names in these roles are searched first without any further qualification, then with the current module name prepended, then with the current module and class name (if any) prepended. If you prefix the name with a dot, this order is reversed. For example, in the documentation of Python’s codecs module, :py:func:`open` always refers to the built-in function, while :py:func:`.open` refers to

A similar heuristic is used to determine whether the name is an attribute of the currently documented class.

Also, if the name is prefixed with a dot, and no exact match is found, the target is taken as a suffix and all object names with that suffix are searched. For example, :py:meth:`.TarFile.close` references the tarfile.TarFile.close() function, even if the current module is not tarfile. Since this can get ambiguous, if there is more than one possible match, you will get a warning from Sphinx.

Note that you can combine the ~ and . prefixes: :py:meth:`~.TarFile.close` will reference the tarfile.TarFile.close() method, but the visible link caption will only be close().

The C Domain

The C domain (name c) is suited for documentation of C API.

.. c:function:: function prototype

Describes a C function. The signature should be given as in C, e.g.:

.. c:function:: PyObject* PyType_GenericAlloc(PyTypeObject *type, Py_ssize_t nitems)

This is also used to describe function-like preprocessor macros. The names of the arguments should be given so they may be used in the description.

Note that you don’t have to backslash-escape asterisks in the signature, as it is not parsed by the reST inliner.

.. c:member:: declaration

Describes a C struct member. Example signature:

.. c:member:: PyObject* PyTypeObject.tp_bases

The text of the description should include the range of values allowed, how the value should be interpreted, and whether the value can be changed. References to structure members in text should use the member role.

.. c:macro:: name

Describes a «simple» C macro. Simple macros are macros which are used for code expansion, but which do not take arguments so cannot be described as functions. This is a simple C-language #define. Examples of its use in the Python documentation include PyObject_HEAD and Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS.

.. c:type:: name

Describes a C type (whether defined by a typedef or struct). The signature should just be the type name.

.. c:var:: declaration

Describes a global C variable. The signature should include the type, such as:

.. c:var:: PyObject* PyClass_Type

Cross-referencing C constructs

The following roles create cross-references to C-language constructs if they are defined in the documentation:


Reference a C-language function. Should include trailing parentheses.


Reference a C-language member of a struct.


Reference a «simple» C macro, as defined above.


Reference a C-language type.


Reference a C-language variable.

The C++ Domain

The C++ domain (name cpp) supports documenting C++ projects.

Directives for Declaring Entities

The following directives are available. All declarations can start with a visibility statement (public, private or protected).

.. cpp:class:: class specifier
.. cpp:struct:: class specifier

Describe a class/struct, possibly with specification of inheritance, e.g.,:

.. cpp:class:: MyClass : public MyBase, MyOtherBase

The difference between cpp:class and cpp:struct is only cosmetic: the prefix rendered in the output, and the specifier shown in the index.

The class can be directly declared inside a nested scope, e.g.,:

.. cpp:class:: OuterScope::MyClass : public MyBase, MyOtherBase

A class template can be declared:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T, std::size_t N> std::array

or with a line break:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T, std::size_t N> \

Full and partial template specialisations can be declared:

.. cpp:class:: template<> \
               std::array<bool, 256>

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T> \
               std::array<T, 42>

Nuevo en la versión 2.0: The cpp:struct directive.

.. cpp:function:: (member) function prototype

Describe a function or member function, e.g.,:

.. cpp:function:: bool myMethod(int arg1, std::string arg2)

   A function with parameters and types.

.. cpp:function:: bool myMethod(int, double)

   A function with unnamed parameters.

.. cpp:function:: const T &MyClass::operator[](std::size_t i) const

   An overload for the indexing operator.

.. cpp:function:: operator bool() const

   A casting operator.

.. cpp:function:: constexpr void foo(std::string &bar[2]) noexcept

   A constexpr function.

.. cpp:function:: MyClass::MyClass(const MyClass&) = default

   A copy constructor with default implementation.

Function templates can also be described:

.. cpp:function:: template<typename U> \
                  void print(U &&u)

and function template specialisations:

.. cpp:function:: template<> \
                  void print(int i)
.. cpp:member:: (member) variable declaration
.. cpp:var:: (member) variable declaration

Describe a variable or member variable, e.g.,:

.. cpp:member:: std::string MyClass::myMember

.. cpp:var:: std::string MyClass::myOtherMember[N][M]

.. cpp:member:: int a = 42

Variable templates can also be described:

.. cpp:member:: template<class T> \
                constexpr T pi = T(3.1415926535897932385)
.. cpp:type:: typedef declaration
.. cpp:type:: name
.. cpp:type:: type alias declaration

Describe a type as in a typedef declaration, a type alias declaration, or simply the name of a type with unspecified type, e.g.,:

.. cpp:type:: std::vector<int> MyList

   A typedef-like declaration of a type.

.. cpp:type:: MyContainer::const_iterator

   Declaration of a type alias with unspecified type.

.. cpp:type:: MyType = std::unordered_map<int, std::string>

   Declaration of a type alias.

A type alias can also be templated:

.. cpp:type:: template<typename T> \
              MyContainer = std::vector<T>

The example are rendered as follows.

typedef std::vector<int> MyList

A typedef-like declaration of a type.

type MyContainer::const_iterator

Declaration of a type alias with unspecified type.

using MyType = std::unordered_map<int, std::string>

Declaration of a type alias.

template<typename T>
using MyContainer = std::vector<T>
.. cpp:enum:: unscoped enum declaration
.. cpp:enum-struct:: scoped enum declaration
.. cpp:enum-class:: scoped enum declaration

Describe a (scoped) enum, possibly with the underlying type specified. Any enumerators declared inside an unscoped enum will be declared both in the enum scope and in the parent scope. Examples:

.. cpp:enum:: MyEnum

   An unscoped enum.

.. cpp:enum:: MySpecificEnum : long

   An unscoped enum with specified underlying type.

.. cpp:enum-class:: MyScopedEnum

   A scoped enum.

.. cpp:enum-struct:: protected MyScopedVisibilityEnum : std::underlying_type<MySpecificEnum>::type

   A scoped enum with non-default visibility, and with a specified underlying type.
.. cpp:enumerator:: name
.. cpp:enumerator:: name = constant

Describe an enumerator, optionally with its value defined, e.g.,:

.. cpp:enumerator:: MyEnum::myEnumerator

.. cpp:enumerator:: MyEnum::myOtherEnumerator = 42
.. cpp:union:: name

Describe a union.

Nuevo en la versión 1.8.

.. cpp:concept:: template-parameter-list name


The support for concepts is experimental. It is based on the current draft standard and the Concepts Technical Specification. The features may change as they evolve.

Describe a concept. It must have exactly 1 template parameter list. The name may be a nested name. Example:

.. cpp:concept:: template<typename It> std::Iterator

   Proxy to an element of a notional sequence that can be compared,
   indirected, or incremented.


   .. cpp:var:: It r

      An lvalue.

   **Valid Expressions**

   - :cpp:expr:`*r`, when :cpp:expr:`r` is dereferenceable.
   - :cpp:expr:`++r`, with return type :cpp:expr:`It&`, when :cpp:expr:`r` is incrementable.

This will render as follows:

template<typename It>
concept std::Iterator

Proxy to an element of a notional sequence that can be compared, indirected, or incremented.


It r

An lvalue.

Valid Expressions

  • *r, when r is dereferenceable.
  • ++r, with return type It&, when r is incrementable.

Nuevo en la versión 1.5.


Some directives support options:

  • :noindex:, see Basic Markup.

  • :tparam-line-spec:, for templated declarations. If specified, each template parameter will be rendered on a separate line.

    Nuevo en la versión 1.6.

Anonymous Entities

C++ supports anonymous namespaces, classes, enums, and unions. For the sake of documentation they must be given some name that starts with @, e.g., @42 or @data. These names can also be used in cross-references and (type) expressions, though nested symbols will be found even when omitted. The @... name will always be rendered as [anonymous] (possibly as a link).


.. cpp:class:: Data

   .. cpp:union:: @data

      .. cpp:var:: int a

      .. cpp:var:: double b

Explicit ref: :cpp:var:`Data::@data::a`. Short-hand ref: :cpp:var:`Data::a`.

This will be rendered as:

class Data

Explicit ref: Data::@data::a. Short-hand ref: Data::a.

Nuevo en la versión 1.8.

Aliasing Declarations

Sometimes it may be helpful list declarations elsewhere than their main documentation, e.g., when creating a synopsis of a class interface. The following directive can be used for this purpose.

.. cpp:alias:: name or function signature

Insert one or more alias declarations. Each entity can be specified as they can in the cpp:any role. If the name of a function is given (as opposed to the complete signature), then all overloads of the function will be listed.

For example:

.. cpp:alias:: Data::a



.. cpp:alias:: void overload_example::C::f(double d) const
               void overload_example::C::f(double d)


Nuevo en la versión 2.0.

Constrained Templates


The support for concepts is experimental. It is based on the current draft standard and the Concepts Technical Specification. The features may change as they evolve.


Sphinx does not currently support requires clauses.


Declarations may use the name of a concept to introduce constrained template parameters, or the keyword auto to introduce unconstrained template parameters:

.. cpp:function:: void f(auto &&arg)

   A function template with a single unconstrained template parameter.

.. cpp:function:: void f(std::Iterator it)

   A function template with a single template parameter, constrained by the
   Iterator concept.

Template Introductions

Simple constrained function or class templates can be declared with a template introduction instead of a template parameter list:

.. cpp:function:: std::Iterator{It} void advance(It &it)

    A function template with a template parameter constrained to be an

.. cpp:class:: std::LessThanComparable{T} MySortedContainer

    A class template with a template parameter constrained to be

They are rendered as follows.

void advance(It &it)

A function template with a template parameter constrained to be an Iterator.

class MySortedContainer

A class template with a template parameter constrained to be LessThanComparable.

Note however that no checking is performed with respect to parameter compatibility. E.g., Iterator{A, B, C} will be accepted as an introduction even though it would not be valid C++.

Inline Expressions and Types


Insert a C++ expression or type either as inline code (cpp:expr) or inline text (cpp:texpr). For example:

.. cpp:var:: int a = 42

.. cpp:function:: int f(int i)

An expression: :cpp:expr:`a * f(a)` (or as text: :cpp:texpr:`a * f(a)`).

A type: :cpp:expr:`const MySortedContainer<int>&`
(or as text :cpp:texpr:`const MySortedContainer<int>&`).

will be rendered as follows:

int a = 42
int f(int i)

An expression: a * f(a) (or as text: :cpp:texpr:`a * f(a)`).

A type: const MySortedContainer<int>& (or as text :cpp:texpr:`const MySortedContainer<int>&`).

Nuevo en la versión 1.7: The cpp:expr role.

Nuevo en la versión 1.8: The cpp:texpr role.


Declarations in the C++ domain are as default placed in global scope. The current scope can be changed using three namespace directives. They manage a stack declarations where cpp:namespace resets the stack and changes a given scope.

The cpp:namespace-push directive changes the scope to a given inner scope of the current one.

The cpp:namespace-pop directive undoes the most recent cpp:namespace-push directive.

.. cpp:namespace:: scope specification

Changes the current scope for the subsequent objects to the given scope, and resets the namespace directive stack. Note that the namespace does not need to correspond to C++ namespaces, but can end in names of classes, e.g.,:

.. cpp:namespace:: Namespace1::Namespace2::SomeClass::AnInnerClass

All subsequent objects will be defined as if their name were declared with the scope prepended. The subsequent cross-references will be searched for starting in the current scope.

Using NULL, 0, or nullptr as the scope will change to global scope.

A namespace declaration can also be templated, e.g.,:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T> \

.. cpp:namespace:: template<typename T> std::vector

.. cpp:function:: std::size_t size() const

declares size as a member function of the class template std::vector. Equivalently this could have been declared using:

.. cpp:class:: template<typename T> \

   .. cpp:function:: std::size_t size() const


.. cpp:class:: template<typename T> \
.. cpp:namespace-push:: scope specification

Change the scope relatively to the current scope. For example, after:

.. cpp:namespace:: A::B

.. cpp:namespace-push:: C::D

the current scope will be A::B::C::D.

Nuevo en la versión 1.4.

.. cpp:namespace-pop::

Undo the previous cpp:namespace-push directive (not just pop a scope). For example, after:

.. cpp:namespace:: A::B

.. cpp:namespace-push:: C::D

.. cpp:namespace-pop::

the current scope will be A::B (not A::B::C).

If no previous cpp:namespace-push directive has been used, but only a cpp:namespace directive, then the current scope will be reset to global scope. That is, .. cpp:namespace:: A::B is equivalent to:

.. cpp:namespace:: nullptr

.. cpp:namespace-push:: A::B

Nuevo en la versión 1.4.

Info field lists

The C++ directives support the following info fields (see also Info field lists):

  • param, parameter, arg, argument: Description of a parameter.
  • tparam: Description of a template parameter.
  • returns, return: Description of a return value.
  • throws, throw, exception: Description of a possibly thrown exception.


These roles link to the given declaration types:


Reference a C++ declaration by name (see below for details). The name must be properly qualified relative to the position of the link.

Nuevo en la versión 2.0: The cpp:struct role as alias for the cpp:class role.

Note on References with Templates Parameters/Arguments

These roles follow the Sphinx Cross-referencing syntax rules. This means care must be taken when referencing a (partial) template specialization, e.g. if the link looks like this: :cpp:class:`MyClass<int>`. This is interpreted as a link to int with a title of MyClass. In this case, escape the opening angle bracket with a backslash, like this: :cpp:class:`MyClass\<int>`.

When a custom title is not needed it may be useful to use the roles for inline expressions, cpp:expr and cpp:texpr, where angle brackets do not need escaping.

Declarations without template parameters and template arguments

For linking to non-templated declarations the name must be a nested name, e.g., f or MyClass::f.

Overloaded (member) functions

When a (member) function is referenced using just its name, the reference will point to an arbitrary matching overload. The cpp:any and cpp:func roles will an alternative format, which simply is a complete function declaration. This will resolve to the exact matching overload. As example, consider the following class declaration:

class C
void f(double d) const
void f(double d)
void f(int i)
void f()

References using the cpp:func role:

  • Arbitrary overload: C::f, C::f()
  • Also arbitrary overload: C::f(), C::f()
  • Specific overload: void C::f(), void C::f()
  • Specific overload: void C::f(int), void C::f(int)()
  • Specific overload: void C::f(double), void C::f(double)()
  • Specific overload: void C::f(double) const, void C::f(double) const()

Note that the add_function_parentheses configuration variable does not influence specific overload references.

Templated declarations

Assume the following declarations.

class Wrapper
template<typename TOuter>
class Outer
template<typename TInner>
class Inner

In general the reference must include the template parameter declarations, and template arguments for the prefix of qualified names. For example:

Currently the lookup only succeed if the template parameter identifiers are equal strings. That is, template\<typename UOuter> Wrapper::Outer will not work.

As a shorthand notation, if a template parameter list is omitted, then the lookup will assume either a primary template or a non-template, but not a partial template specialisation. This means the following references work as well:

(Full) Template Specialisations

Assume the following declarations.

template<typename TOuter>
class Outer
template<typename TInner>
class Inner
class Outer<int>
template<typename TInner>
class Inner
class Inner<bool>

In general the reference must include a template parameter list for each template argument list. The full specialisation above can therefore be referenced with template\<> Outer\<int> (template<> Outer<int>) and template\<> template\<> Outer\<int>::Inner\<bool> (template<> template<> Outer<int>::Inner<bool>). As a shorthand the empty template parameter list can be omitted, e.g., Outer\<int> (Outer<int>) and Outer\<int>::Inner\<bool> (Outer<int>::Inner<bool>).

Partial Template Specialisations

Assume the following declaration.

template<typename T>
class Outer<T *>

References to partial specialisations must always include the template parameter lists, e.g., template\<typename T> Outer\<T*> (template<typename T> Outer<T*>). Currently the lookup only succeed if the template parameter identifiers are equal strings.

Configuration Variables

See Options for the C++ domain.

The Standard Domain

The so-called «standard» domain collects all markup that doesn’t warrant a domain of its own. Its directives and roles are not prefixed with a domain name.

The standard domain is also where custom object descriptions, added using the add_object_type() API, are placed.

There is a set of directives allowing documenting command-line programs:

.. option:: name args, name args, ...

Describes a command line argument or switch. Option argument names should be enclosed in angle brackets. Examples:

.. option:: dest_dir

   Destination directory.

.. option:: -m <module>, --module <module>

   Run a module as a script.

The directive will create cross-reference targets for the given options, referenceable by option (in the example case, you’d use something like :option:`dest_dir`, :option:`-m`, or :option:`--module`).

cmdoption directive is a deprecated alias for the option directive.

.. envvar:: name

Describes an environment variable that the documented code or program uses or defines. Referenceable by envvar.

.. program:: name

Like py:currentmodule, this directive produces no output. Instead, it serves to notify Sphinx that all following option directives document options for the program called name.

If you use program, you have to qualify the references in your option roles by the program name, so if you have the following situation

.. program:: rm

.. option:: -r

   Work recursively.

.. program:: svn

.. option:: -r revision

   Specify the revision to work upon.

then :option:`rm -r` would refer to the first option, while :option:`svn -r` would refer to the second one.

The program name may contain spaces (in case you want to document subcommands like svn add and svn commit separately).

Nuevo en la versión 0.5.

There is also a very generic object description directive, which is not tied to any domain:

.. describe:: text
.. object:: text

This directive produces the same formatting as the specific ones provided by domains, but does not create index entries or cross-referencing targets. Example:

.. describe:: PAPER

   You can set this variable to select a paper size.

The JavaScript Domain

The JavaScript domain (name js) provides the following directives:

.. js:module:: name

This directive sets the module name for object declarations that follow after. The module name is used in the global module index and in cross references. This directive does not create an object heading like py:class would, for example.

By default, this directive will create a linkable entity and will cause an entry in the global module index, unless the noindex option is specified. If this option is specified, the directive will only update the current module name.

To clear the current module, set the module name to null or None

Nuevo en la versión 1.6.

.. js:function:: name(signature)

Describes a JavaScript function or method. If you want to describe arguments as optional use square brackets as documented for Python signatures.

You can use fields to give more details about arguments and their expected types, errors which may be thrown by the function, and the value being returned:

.. js:function:: $.getJSON(href, callback[, errback])

   :param string href: An URI to the location of the resource.
   :param callback: Gets called with the object.
   :param errback:
       Gets called in case the request fails. And a lot of other
       text so we need multiple lines.
   :throws SomeError: For whatever reason in that case.
   :returns: Something.

This is rendered as:

$.getJSON(href, callback[, errback])
  • href (string) – An URI to the location of the resource.
  • callback – Gets called with the object.
  • errback – Gets called in case the request fails. And a lot of other text so we need multiple lines.

SomeError – For whatever reason in that case.



.. js:method:: name(signature)

This directive is an alias for js:function, however it describes a function that is implemented as a method on a class object.

Nuevo en la versión 1.6.

.. js:class:: name

Describes a constructor that creates an object. This is basically like a function but will show up with a class prefix:

.. js:class:: MyAnimal(name[, age])

   :param string name: The name of the animal
   :param number age: an optional age for the animal

This is rendered as:

class MyAnimal(name[, age])
  • name (string) – The name of the animal
  • age (number) – an optional age for the animal
.. js:data:: name

Describes a global variable or constant.

.. js:attribute::

Describes the attribute name of object.

These roles are provided to refer to the described objects:


The reStructuredText domain

The reStructuredText domain (name rst) provides the following directives:

.. rst:directive:: name

Describes a reST directive. The name can be a single directive name or actual directive syntax (.. prefix and :: suffix) with arguments that will be rendered differently. For example:

.. rst:directive:: foo

   Foo description.

.. rst:directive:: .. bar:: baz

   Bar description.

will be rendered as:

.. foo::

Foo description.

.. bar:: baz

Bar description.

.. rst:role:: name

Describes a reST role. For example:

.. rst:role:: foo

   Foo description.

will be rendered as:


Foo description.

These roles are provided to refer to the described objects:


The Math Domain

The math domain (name math) provides the following roles:

.. rst:role:: math:numref

Role for cross-referencing equations defined by math directive via their label. Example:

.. math:: e^{i\pi} + 1 = 0
   :label: euler

Euler's identity, equation :math:numref:`euler`, was elected one of the
most beautiful mathematical formulas.

Nuevo en la versión 1.8.

More domains

The sphinx-contrib repository contains more domains available as extensions; currently Ada, CoffeeScript, Erlang, HTTP, Lasso, MATLAB, PHP, and Ruby domains. Also available are domains for Chapel, Common Lisp, dqn, Go, Jinja, Operation, and Scala.